Native- Human Neutrophils
Azurocidin a human neutrophil granule protein displays antibacterial and monocyte-specific chemotactic activity. It mobilises rapidly from emigrating polymorphonuclear leukocytes and is an important mediator during initiation of an immune response. With a molecular mass of 37kDa, azurocidin has 45% sequence identity to human neutrophil elastase. However, it is not a serine proteases as it lacks active serine and histidine residues. Azurocidin shows highest homology to elastase in the regions containing eight strictly reserved cysteine residues.
Azurocidin has been reported as an early indicator of organ failure and poor neurological outcomes after cardiac arrest with high levels being found in the plasma. Detecting circulatory failure in patients with sepsis is critical for successful treatment. Heparin binding protein released from activated neutrophils is a potent inducer of vascular leakage, monitoring for elevated levels of this protein can help identify the risks of patients developing sepsis when they are in circulatory failure. Similar observations have been made in patients susceptible to ARDS and sepsis after experiencing trauma events.
Plasma azurocidin levels have been found to be elevated in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.
Azurocidin levels may also be of significance in respiratory failure after trauma, in acute bacterial meningitis and as a predictor of outcome in cardiac arrest
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